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At any rate there is no reason to suppose that the linguistic exercise is in any way impaired by being combined with a little history.

I should like to direct attention also to the notes given on the extracts, and the purpose they are meant to serve.

It was not until the history of Rome threw its mantle over her poetry that the dignity of the poet was recognised and acknowledged. 5-12); how to reproduce in good English the exact meaning and characteristics of his author (Helps to Style, pp. The Passages have been carefully selected, and contain accounts of nearly all the important events and illustrious men of the period of history to which they belong. For the Short Lives I have found useful ‘The Student’s Companion to Latin Authors’ (Middleton and Mills), but I owe much more to the works of Teuffel, Cruttwell, Sellar, Tyrrell, and Mackail. For example, Livy, the historian of Rome and friend of Augustus, the contemporary of Vergil and Ovid. 293-345, will tell you the chief facts about the authors from whom the selections are taken, and will give you a brief summary of their chief works. 347-363, you will gain some idea of the time in which the authors lived and of their contemporaries. —As you read— (1) Notice all allusions and key-words that may help you to the sense of the passage. In translating a passage much depends on getting the first sentence right. —English derivatives, if used in the proper way, may give you valuable help in inferring meanings. In all such cases you must be partly guided by the context. A knowledge of the most important suffixes will often help you to the correct meaning of a Latin word, the root of which is familiar to you. (For additional Examples of Cognates, see Appendix IV. 287-8.) You have now read the passage through carefully, and thought out the vocabulary to the best of your ability. ‘This mode of expression is called a PERIOD (a circuĭtus or ambĭtus verborum), because the reader, in order to collect together the words of the Principal Sentence, must make a circuit, so to say, round the inserted clauses,’2 ‘Latin possesses what English does not, a mode of expression by means of which, round one main idea are grouped all its accessory ideas, and there is thus formed a single harmonious whole, called the PERIOD.’3 A PERIOD then is a sentence containing only one main idea (the Principal Sentence) and several Subordinate Clauses. You will know something, perhaps, of Shakespeare and Scott, of Macaulay and Tennyson. Notice the usual phonetic change of vowel from a to i.

They are chronologically arranged and divided into six periods, covering Roman history from 44, leaving the Augustan and subsequent period to be dealt with in a second volume. 60-107) are thus intended to help younger boys to deal with passages which would in some cases be too difficult for them; less help in translation is given in Parts IV. The Head Master of Eton, besides expressing his approval of the book, has kindly offered to write an Introductory Note. (3) Notice especially the connectives which introduce sentences and clauses marked off by commas. The reason why you must generally not translate the Latin word by the derived English word is that, as you probably know, many English derivatives have come from Latin words which had wholly or in part lost their earlier classical meaning, or from Latin words not found at all in classical Latin. Thus from the √ag = drive, move, we have— gna-rus = knowing. Begin then to translate the opening sentence, and pay great attention to these 7. For example:— At GERMANI celeriter, consuetudine sua phalange facta, IMPETUS gladiorum EXCEPERUNT. 24) you can easily determine the grammatical form of finals in -a. The Periodic style is generally used for History and Description, and is best seen in Cicero and Livy. Though you may not be able to attack the complete works of any great author, you ought not to have any difficulty in finding good books of selections from the English Classics. —Study a few good English Versions of passages from the best Latin writers. (English derivatives will often help you to the meaning of a Latin word, though, for reasons that are explained to you in the Introduction, pp.

As to the Demonstrations, their value will be evident if it is realised that failure in this sort of translation means failure to analyse: to split up, separate, distinguish the component parts of an apparently jumbled but really ordered sentence. dumetis describes sepulcrum, and the subordinate clause cum . The Syracusans knew nothing of it, and entirely denied its existence. of senarius (seni) = consisting of six each, especially of the iambic senarii. (ii.) Translation.—The only principal verb is clearly tenebam (with subject contained in the verb), and the principal object senariolos (sc. = a fence, farc-io = pack close together; so, con-fer-tus = crowded, freq-uens = repeated, frequent.

In, addition to the value of unseen translation, as a test of teaching it constitutes an admirable thinking exercise. cylindro we have two subordinate adjectival clauses enlarging senariolos.

Notice, too, how often in the case of verbs the supine stem will suggest to you the meaning of the Latin through some English derivative, which the present stem conceals. ĕ changes to ĭ (but not e before two consonants) and ae to i. You will find an example of a simple method of analysis at the close of Demonstrations I and IV, pp. When analysing, notice carefully that:— (1) An enlargement of a Noun may be —Though only the full-stop was used by the ancients, the punctuation marks which are now used in all printed texts should be carefully noticed, especially in translating long and involved sentences. After surrendering their commander and delivering up their arms, they passed under the yoke, and with one garment each WERE SENT to their homes covered with disgrace and defeat. (3) In English we must translate by at least three separate sentences, and, where necessary, translate participles as finite verbs, and change dependent clauses into independent sentences. —You are asked to translate, not to give a mere general idea of the sense. The only finite verb in the sentence, and the principal one. You will recognise this as an ablative absolute phrase. As you read it through, underline the principal verb, clearly REPERTI SUNT, and bracket qui to vulnerarent. cornu = horn; so, figuratively, the wing of an army. păte-facio = to make open; păt-ulus = open, spread out; păt-era = a broad, flat dish. insessis = occupied; in sed-eo = sit upon—so, occupy. (ii.) Translation.— You cannot be in doubt about the principal subject and predicate.

For example:— But, in order to make French derivatives a real help to you, you must know something of the origin of the French language and of the chief rules that govern the pronunciation (and therefore the spelling) of French. Thus in Demonstrations III and IV notice how the subordinate clauses are for the most part enclosed in commas. —A knowledge of this is indispensable in translating verse. Notice here that (1) There is only one main idea, that of the ignominious return of the Volscians to their homes. relinqueret = the cause of the building of the wall. It has been well said: ‘An English sentence does not often exhibit the structure of the Period. dumetis is all logically connected with the object sepulcrum, which for the sake of emphasis is put in an unusual position at the end of the sentence. What you have to do is to think out the exact meaning of every word in the sentence, and to express this in as good and correct English as you can. —The subject of Metaphor is of great importance in good translation. The form shows you it is a so-called impersonal verb, and therefore the subject must be sought from the verb itself in connection with the context. But do not translate this literally their javelins having been thrown away, for this is not English. You cannot doubt which verbs to include in your bracket, for qui, which is a subordinate conjunction as well as a relative pronoun, serves as a sure signpost. This subordinate clause describes, just as an adjective does, the character of these complures nostri, so that qui = tales ut—i.e. (ii.) Translation.—This sentence contains three finite verbs. passim = hither and thither, far and wide, formed from passus (pando), expand. absumpti sint, modifying the action of the principal verb patuit. Acherontis = Acheron = (a) a river in the Lower World; (b) the Lower World itself. Felix is the only word outside the subordinate clause from qui .

The average boy, unequal to the task before him, is forced to draw largely upon his own invention, and the master, in correcting written unseens, has seldom leisure to do more than mark mistakes—a method of correction almost useless to the boy, unless accompanied by full and careful explanation when the written work is given back. (i.) Vocabulary.—You will probably know the meanings of the words in this sentence. Before you put aside this passage, try to avail yourself of some of the following suggestions. For the Poet Vergil17 (70 ).—The chief facts of his life and the subject of his great poems are clearly and shortly given in the Student’s Companion to Latin Authors (a useful and convenient book of reference). lines 490-499.) See— Notice especially the political purpose of the Georgics—to help the policy of Augustus, which aimed at checking the depopulation of the country districts.

Now that less time is available for Latin and Greek, new methods of teaching them must be adopted if they are to hold their own in our public schools. Thus the meaning of— (ii.) Translation.—You have here two principal verbs, doluit, invidit, joined by aut, and a principal subject ille. Compare the alarming migration from the country to the towns in England at the present day. Acherontis avari, which may be summarised as follows: ‘Happy he who knows the laws of Nature, and has therefore ceased to fear natural phenomena and has learnt to despise the fabled terrors of Hades.’ Munro says: ‘I feel that by his Felix qui Vergil does mean a poet-philosopher, who can only be Lucretius.’ Cf.

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